A group of 5 used to help children understand the numbers 6 through 10. (6 = 5 + 1, 7 = 5 + 2, 8 = 5 + 3, and so on)

10-group

A group of 10 used to help children visualize teen numbers and any number containing tens. 14 = 10 + 4

arrangement

A way to display objects to represent numbers. A number can be arranged in different ways and look different but it is still that number.

benchmark

A reference used for comparison. Comparing a known benchmark to an item of unknown size helps children to make a reasonable estimate.

break apart

You can break apart a larger number to get two samller amounts called break aparts, also called partners or addends.

Break-apart Stick

A short narrow strip of paper or a coffee stirrer that can be used to visually separate a number of counters into two groups. (Break-aparts)

centimeter

A metric unit of length equal to 1/100 of a meter.

circle

A plane figure with all points the same distance from a fixed point called the center.

compare

To examine numbers to decide if one number is greater than or less than another or if the numbers are equal.

cone

A solid with a curved surface that comes to a point.

congruent

Having the same size and shape.

corners

Points where line segments meet.

cube

A solid figure that has six congruent squart faces.

curved

A segment that is not straight.

cylinder

A solid with two circular congruent bases.

decade numbers

Numbers that are multiples of 10 (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90).

digit

Any one of these symbols: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.

Dime Strip

A double sided strip of paper or cardboard displaying a dime on one side and 10 pennies on the other side.

doubles

Two of the same addends. In the equation 5 + 5 = 10, the two fives are doubles.

equation

A mathematical sentence that uses an equal sign to show that two expressions are equal. 12 - 7 = 5

estimate (noun)

A number close to an exact amount. An estimate tells about how much or about how many.

estimate (verb)

To make a thoughtful guess or to tell about how much or about how many.

expression

A number, a variable, or any combination of numbers, variables, operation signs and grouping symbols.

face

A flat surface of a solid figure.

hexagon

A figure with six sides.

horizontal

Parallel to the horizon, going straight across.

inch

A customary unit of length equal to 1/12 of a foot.

Math Mountain

A visual representation of the partners and totals of a number. The total appears at the top and the two partners that are added to produce the larger number are below to the left and right.

Nickel Strip

A double-sided strip of paper or cardboard displaying a nickel on one side and 5 pennies on the other side.

number

The word used to describe value or order.

numeral

A symbol used to represent a number. 7 is the numeral for seven. Mathematically, the words number and numeral are not interchangeable. Numeral is the word for the symbol that represents a number. However, at the kindergarten level, the mathematical distinction between the words is not made and the word number is also used to refer to numerals.

parallelogram

A quadrilateral in which both pairs of opposite sides are parallel and opposite angles are congruent.

partners

A pair of numbers in a break-apart. When 10 is broken apart into 10 = 3 + 7, 3 and 7 are partners.

pattern

A way in which numbers or drawings are related to one another that allows predictions about the next number or drawing.

predict

To think about what might happen; to guess; to anticipate what will come next.

prism

A 3-dimensional figure that has two parallel congruent bases and parallelograms for faces.

proof

A method (drawing, logic, etc) to establish that a mathematical property or argument is true.

pyramid

A 3-dimensional figure whose base can be any polygon and whoe faces are triangles.

rectangle

A parallelogram with four right angles.

repeating pattern

A group of numbers, shapes or letters that form a pattern that can be described by a rule. The rule must state how the pattern continues. 1, 2, 1, 2, ...... or A, B, C, A, B, C..........

side

One of the line segments that make up a shape.

sort

To include items in particular groups based on attributes.

sphere

A solid figure that is shaped like a round ball.

square

A figure with four right angles and four congruent sides.

story problem

A math problem using topics from daily life and the math that is being studied.

switch the partners

To change the order of the partners in an addition equation. Used to demonstrate the Commutative Property of Addition which says that the order of the addends does not change the total. 6 + 4 = 10 4 + 6 = 10

teen number

A number made up of one ten and some ones. 11-19 are referred to as teen numbers.

Tiny Tumblers

Used with Math Mountains, Tiny Tumblers represent an imaginative way for children to visualize the partners of a number. If the total represented on a Math Mountain is 10, 7 Tiny Tumblers (small circles) might play on the left side of the mountain and 3 play on the right side to show 7 and 3 as partners of 10.

trapezoid

A quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides.

triangle

A closed figure with three sides.

unit

A quantity used to measure. (inches, pounds, miles, etc.)

abouthow much orabouthow many.about how muchorabout how many.seven.Mathematically, the wordsnumberandnumeralare not interchangeable.Numeralis the word for the symbol that represents a number. However, at the kindergarten level, the mathematical distinction between the words is not made and the wordnumberis also used to refer tonumerals.